google-site-verification=3h1QCuKa3OadNv9DfFo149r24F1IunFx1TXDmN07fDo

Resurrection Second Sunday

Season of Resurrection

Second Sunday: John 20:19-29
ST. THOMAS AND THE DIVINE MERCY SUNDAY

INTRODUCTION

St. Thomas the Apostle insisted that he would believe in the Risen Lord only if he would see Jesus and touch the wound-marks on his hands and side. That became another proof for Jesus’ resurrection. Jesus is the focus of the story because he, who washed the feet of his apostles, humbled to appear before Thomas and obliged to all his demands to make him come back to his faith. Thomas in turn expressed his firm belief in the Risen Lord and committed himself for the spreading of the gospel and even became a martyr for Christ in 72 A.D. Today being the feast of the Divine Mercy, let us express our trust in the Lord, seek his mercy for our sins and the sins of the world, and show mercy to all whom we encounter.

BIBLE TEXT

Appearance to the Disciples

(John 20:19) On the evening of that day, the first day of the week, the doors were locked where the disciples were together, because of their fear of the Jews, but Jesus came and stood among them. He said to them, “Peace be with you.” (20) When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side. The disciples kept looking at the Lord and were full of joy. (21) Again Jesus said to them, “Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, so I am sending you.” (22) And with that he breathed on them and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit. (23) If you forgive people’s sins, they are forgiven; if you retain people’s sins, they are retained.”

Thomas

(24) Thomas, the Twin, one of the Twelve, was not with them when Jesus came. (25) The other disciples told him, “We have seen the Lord.” But he replied, “Until I have seen in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger in the mark of the nails and my hand into his side, I will not believe.” (26) Eight days later, the disciples were in the house again and Thomas was with them. Despite the locked doors Jesus came in. He stood among them and said, “Peace be with you.” (27) Then he said to Thomas, “Put your finger here and see my hands; stretch out your hand and put it into my side. Doubt no longer but believe.” (28) Thomas then said, “My Lord and my God.” (29) Jesus replied, “You believe because you see me. Blessed are those who believe although they have not seen.”

INTERPRETATION 

Appearance to the Disciples

(John 20:19) On the evening of that day, the first day of the week, the doors were locked where the disciples were together, because of their fear of the Jews, but Jesus came and stood among them. He said to them, “Peace be with you.”

The first day of the week
Since God created the universe and everything in it within six days and sanctified the seventh day as Sabbath, the next day was another week’s beginning. Jesus’ resurrection on the Sunday early morning was the beginning a new era. Jesus continued to appear on Sundays to his disciples until he ascended to heaven. Hence for Christians, Sunday replaced the Sabbath day to celebrate the holiness and joy of resurrection. 

The doors were locked
The body of the Risen Lord was his same body when he was alive, but was an enhanced one free from the limitations of the physical body. So, he could come inside the locked room through the wall without opening the doors like light passing through the glass window. This shows the nature of our risen body at the second coming of Christ.

Because of their fear of the Jews
The Jewish leaders were observing Jesus’ disciples. Their concern was that the disciples might steal Jesus’ body and claim that he had resurrected from the dead (Matthew 27:62-66). Peter had cut off the ear of the High Priest’s slave with a sword (John 18:10) and John was at the foot of the cross. Jewish authorities kept watching their every movement for concern of any aggressive reaction from them.

“Peace be with you.”
This was a usual form of salutation among the Jews. Israel had peace and prosperity when they were faithful to God.

Jesus appeared to his disciples after the successful offering of himself as the Lamb of God. He returned like the High Priest’s arrival from the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16:34). Every year, on the Day of Atonement, the High Priest went into the Holy of Holies and sprinkle the mercy seat with the blood of a bull for the priests’ purification and the blood of a goat for the forgiveness of sins of all the Israelites. Jesus, the Lamb of God, sprinkled his blood to redeem all humanity and has returned after completing his mission. Thus, Jesus established peace, and he communicated that to the apostles.

(20) When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side. The disciples kept looking at the Lord and were full of joy.

He showed them his hands and his side.
Even without the disciples asking for any proof, Jesus showed them the wound marks on his hands and chest. They are the permanent marks of his great love. The apostles were more convinced of the Lord’s resurrection than before. Some had only heard the reports of the Risen Lord’s vision. They were fortunate to see the Risen Lord face to face.

The disciples kept looking at the Lord and were full of joy.
The appearance of the Risen Lord convinced the apostles with evidence that Jesus rose from the dead. Their immense grief at the heartbreaking crucifixion of Jesus has turned to immense joy of his victory.

(21) Again Jesus said to them, “Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, so I am sending you.”

Peace be with you.
Unlike the same greeting in John 20:19, this repeated greeting of Jesus was an assurance he offered to his apostles as he was sending them out with a mission to the world. In John 14:27, Jesus had assured his disciples, “Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. Not as the world gives peace, do I give it to you. Do not be troubled; do not be afraid.” Even during the severe persecution of the early church, they would experience peace of mind as he himself had during his passion and crucifixion.

As the Father has sent me, so I am sending you.
As part of Jesus’ prayer for his disciples he said, “for I have sent them into the world as you sent me into the world.” (John 17:18). He was using the same to address his apostles. Like the Father sent the son with a purpose into the world, the son sent his trained and ordained disciples to continue his mission. Just as the Father needed the service of the Son to communicate his message of love and redemption in words and actions, Jesus needed the church to continue the same. As members of the church, we are the evangelists of Jesus to proclaim his gospel in our day-today lives.

(22) And with that he breathed on them and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit.

He breathed on them.
Jesus breathing on his disciples was like Yahweh breathed into the nostril of Adam when He made him from the clay (Genesis 2:7). Unlike the case of other living beings, Yahweh breathed into Adam’s body that He crafted from clay. This breathing gave Adam an everlasting soul. Similar breathing of Jesus on the apostles was to give them an eternal spiritual life. This breathing came to its fullness when the Holy Spirit came on them on the day of Pentecost. The Holy Spirit recreated us when we received the baptism of Jesus. That was the fulfillment of Jesus instructing Nicodemus, “Unless one is born of water and the Spirit, one cannot enter the Kingdom of God.” (John 3:5).

Receive the Holy Spirit.
At the Last Supper, Jesus gave the consecrated bread and wine and told the apostles to receive his body and blood. At his appearance after the resurrection, Jesus gave them his Spirit as the continuation and fulfillment of the Holy Eucharist.

(23) If you forgive people’s sins, they are forgiven; if you retain people’s sins, they are retained.”

If you forgive people’s sins, they are forgiven.
God the Father had commissioned Jesus to save people from their sins. Jesus assigned his disciples to continue that mission. So, their goal is not to judge but to save people through their preaching, baptism, and absolution of sins. They received the authority to do so when they received the Holy Spirit.

If you retain people’s sins, they are retained.
Repentance is a requirement for the forgiveness of sins. In the prodigal son’s story, the Father had been waiting for his younger son’s return with true repentance. Jesus absolved the sins of all who approached him with contrite hearts, including a criminal crucified with him. The sins retained are the iniquities of those who do not reconcile with God.

(24) Thomas, the Twin, one of the Twelve, was not with them when Jesus came.

Thomas, called Didymus
Thomas is a Hebrew name, and Didymus is the equivalent Greek name. Both names signify twin because Thomas was a twin in his family. The Jews used to have a Jewish name and a Gentile name. In Judea, the public knew them by their Hebrew names, and in Galilee and other non-Jewish areas people used their Gentile names. For example, Saul was the Hebrew name and Paul was the Greek name of the Apostle Paul.

One of the Twelve
Jesus kept many Jewish traditions, and one was the importance he gave to number 12 in selecting his apostles. They stood for the 12 sons or tribes of Israel. After the death of Judas, the college of the apostles was very particular to keep the same number by selecting Mathias to substitute Judas Iscariot.

Number 12 has importance in the Bible. It is one of the perfect numbers like 3, 7, and 10 derived from the 12 sons of Jacob whose descendants became the 12 tribes of Israel. Moses sent 12 spies to Canaan representing the 12 tribes of Israel. Jesus considered his church as the new Israel and selected 12 men as the pillars of his church. He said of his apostles, “Listen to my words: at the renewal of all things, when the Son of Man sits on his throne in glory, you who have followed me will yourselves sit on twelve thrones to rule the twelve tribes of Israel.” (Matthew 19:28).

Thomas was not with them when Jesus came.
It was not Judas or Peter alone who failed in their promises at Christ’s passion. Thomas, who had told his colleagues “Let us also go to die with him” (John 11:16), had failed when Jesus’ trail and crucifixion took place. However, he worked hard for the early church and accepted martyrdom in 72 A.D. Thomas might have been suffering from guilt feeling that he, like Peter, did not keep his promise. Thomas might have opted to grieve in private, like those who would prefer to spend in solitude during the time of severe grief than in the companionship of others. He might not have remembered the words of Jesus, “where two or three are gathered in my name, I am there with them.” (Matthew 18:20).

(25) The other disciples told him, “We have seen the Lord.” But he replied, “Until I have seen in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger in the mark of the nails and my hand into his side, I will not believe.”

The unbelief of Thomas was not just his refusal to believe in the testimony of his ten colleagues, but in Jesus’ resurrection. Even seeing the Risen Lord was not enough for Thomas. He wanted to touch and feel the wound marks on Jesus’ body.

Nail marks
Crucifixion of criminals could be by nailing or fastening to the cross with cords. Thomas’s statement is a proof that the soldiers nailed Jesus to the cross. That was also the fulfillment of Psalm 22:16, “They have pierced my hands and feet.”

Put my hand into his side
Thomas knew that Longinus, a blind centurion, had pierced Jesus’ heart, though Thomas did not see it. He came to know that from the eyewitness account of John. So, Thomas wanted to touch that wound mark.

(26) Eight days later, the disciples were in the house again and Thomas was with them. Despite the locked doors Jesus came in. He stood among them and said, “Peace be with you.”

Jesus’ second appearance to Thomas and other apostles was on the Sunday after Easter. Though the apostles might have been gathering often, this Sunday gathering might have been for special prayer to remember the Lord’s resurrection. This time also, as in the past week, the disciples locked the doors for fear of Jews. They might have been in the same room. The same greeting of Jesus as before, “Peace be unto you,” was a normal greeting with a new meaning of peace of resurrection added to it.

Thomas was with them.
Thomas might have realized that he should be with the company of other apostles to receive the privilege to meet the Risen Lord. So, he continued staying with them in prayer. The other 10 apostles were witnesses to the privilege Jesus gave to Thomas to touch his wound marks of crucifixion.

(27) Then he said to Thomas, “Put your finger here and see my hands; stretch out your hand and put it into my side. Doubt no longer but believe.”

During the previous Sunday, Thomas missed Jesus’ visit and all that Jesus did for the other apostles. However, on the second Sunday, Thomas got exclusive attention from Jesus by calling him by name and allowing him to touch his wound marks from crucifixion.

Doubt no longer but believe.
The doubt here means the unbelief of Thomas in Jesus’ resurrection and his tendency to move backward in his spiritual relation with Jesus. A firm believer trusts the Lord without seeking evidences.

28) Thomas then said, “My Lord and my God.”

Jesus knowing the demands of Thomas, without him asking, surprised Thomas. Besides, the Lord was humbling himself to appear before him and yielded to his demands. Without waiting to touch for belief, Thomas responded his profession of faith.

“My Lord and my God!”
There are different shades of meaning for the words “Lord” and “God.” The term God comes from Hebrew “Elohim” and Greek “Theos.” God stands for the all-powerful one who created the world and sustains it. The word “Lord” comes from Hebrew “Adonai” and Greek “Kurios.” Its translation is Yahweh (Jehovah), who interacts with people like making Adam out of clay, breathing into his nostrils, creating Eve out of Adam’s rib, conversing with the first parents, and making a covenant with the people. Elohim came from Priestly tradition, and Yahweh came from Yahwistic tradition in the Bible. Thus, Old Testament used both Lord and God when referring to God the Almighty. Psalm 35:23 uses, “my God and my Lord.”

The disciples called Jesus, the Lord. That could mean someone in a higher rank or the “Son of God.” In Matthew 16:16, Simon Peter answered Jesus, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” Jesus had asserted he was God and for that reason the Jews accused him of blasphemy. However, Thomas got the inspiration to say to the Risen Lord, “My Lord and my God.” By that, Thomas declared that he had seen Jesus so far as his Lord. However, he acknowledged that the Lord is also the Mighty God. Hence, Thomas had advanced in his belief and conviction. He expressed his faith in the divinity of Jesus. Jesus had told in John 14:9, “Whoever has seen me has seen the Father.” Thomas while seeing the Risen Lord acknowledged that God the Father was visible in Jesus.

(29) Jesus replied, “You believe because you see me. Blessed are those who believe although they have not seen.”

We believe many things in practical and spiritual life without seeing or with no proof. We trust in the words or reports of others. Jesus compliments those who believe with spiritual sight than with physical sight. The doubt of Thomas, and Jesus yielding to the demand of Thomas became another proof for Jesus’ resurrection.

MESSAGE OF DIVINE MERCY

Today is also Divine Mercy Sunday. This devotion to Jesus developed from the visions of a Polish nun, Sr. Maria Faustina Kowalska who was born on August 25, 1905 and died on October 5, 1938. She had a vision of Jesus on February 22, 1931. Jesus asked her to paint his image as she had seen in the vision. An artist completed the Divine Mercy painting in June 1934. Jesus gave messages to Sr. Faustina from 1931 to 1938. The message of the Divine Mercy was a great comfort for the victims of Second World War. Pope John Paul II issued an encyclical on the Divine Mercy on November 30, 1980. He canonized Sr. Faustina and proclaimed the Divine Mercy celebration on Sunday, April 30, 2000. Based on the message of Jesus to Sr. Faustina, the Catholic Church celebrates this feast every year on the second Sunday of Easter.

The Divine Mercy gives us three themes:
1. To ask for and get God’s mercy
2. To trust in Christ’s abundant mercy
3. To show mercy to others and function as a channel for God’s mercy towards them.

The five chief forms of Divine Mercy devotion are:
1. The Divine Mercy image with the specific inscription, “Jesus, I trust in you.”
2. The Divine Mercy Sunday feast celebration.
3. The Chaplet of Divine Mercy recital.
4. The designation of the Hour of Mercy at 3:00 P.M.
5. The spreading of the acts of mercy to the entire world, to prepare for the second coming of Christ.

The image of the Divine Mercy depicts Jesus standing with one hand outstretched for blessing and the other pointing to his pierced heart. From the broken heart proceeds beams of red and white light. The two colors represent blood and water that flowed from Jesus’ heart when Longinus pierced his heart. The water stands for baptism and the blood for Holy Eucharist that we receive for our salvation.

Jesus taught us the mercy of his Father, and Jesus shared that mercy during his life on earth. He was kind to Thomas, who was in grief for missing to see the Risen Lord. Jesus conveyed his special love toward the modern world through the visions and messages to Sr. Faustina. Let us trust in the Lord and seek his mercy and involve in the acts of mercy.

MESSAGE

1. Jesus appeared every Sunday to his disciples after his resurrection and before his ascension into heaven. Jesus comes down to meet us during every Holy Mass, especially on Sundays. Let us give proper importance for Sunday observance.

2. The Divine Mercy Sunday reminds us we must show mercy to others just as God is merciful to us. Jesus gave that message several times, including his prediction on the last judgement. Let us put that teaching into practice.

3. Since Thomas did not keep the company of his fellow apostles, he missed the excellent opportunity to meet the Risen Lord on the day of resurrection. While he was absent, Jesus breathed on the other apostles and commissioned them for spreading the gospel and empowered them to forgive and withhold sins. Though he got all these later from Jesus, the experience of Thomas is a lesson for us to keep up the Christian brotherhood.

4. Compassion of Jesus to the stubborn Thomas is a model for us. Jesus who washed the feet of his disciples again showed them how we should be humble and caring towards people tough to manage.

5. The story of Thomas missing the first appearance of Jesus to the apostles on the Easter Sunday gives us a lesson. Some believers claim that they are spiritual but do not want to do anything with religion. They have faith in God and do personal prayers. Jesus wants us to be in communion with the church because he is the head of the church and the Holy Spirit is guiding the church. The Holy Mass, which is the sacrifice of Jesus, and other sacraments are our essential spiritual nourishments.

6. The experience of St. Thomas and the messages of Divine Mercy through Sister St. Faustina are messages to trust in the Lord, to seek the God’s mercy, and communicate and show mercy to others in our daily lives.

7. St. Thomas seeing the Risen Lord and St. Faustina’s vision of Jesus point to the wounded heart of Jesus. His sacrificial love from his heart is a lesson for us to follow in serving others from our hearts.